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如(ru)何使用和維護電動機

來源:    日期:2015-12-22    瀏覽次數5356

電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動機(ji)運行(xing)中(zhong),電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流應(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)不(bu)超(chao)過(guo)(guo)銘(ming)牌上的額定電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流,三相電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流不(bu)平衡(heng)度、空載(zai)時不(bu)超(chao)過(guo)(guo)10%,中(zhong)載(zai)以(yi)上時不(bu)超(chao)過(guo)(guo)5%。電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓與額定電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓的偏差不(bu)超(chao)過(guo)(guo)±5%,三相電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓不(bu)平衡(heng)度不(bu)超(chao)過(guo)(guo)1.5%。電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動機(ji)鐵心(xin)或(huo)機(ji)殼溫升應(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)不(bu)超(chao)過(guo)(guo)該(gai)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji)絕緣等(deng)級所規定的溫升值。E級為:80k(電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)阻(zu)法);F級為:105K(電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)阻(zu)法)。電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji)應(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)進行(xing)維修,每月(yue)應(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)小修,年未應(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)進行(xing)大修。每周應(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)對電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji)進行(xing)集電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)環檢查及(ji)清除電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji)表面的灰塵。

1.YZ、YZR系列(lie)電動機的使用(yong)和維護(hu)特點

1)、YZ系列電(dian)動(dong)機可(ke)直(zhi)接起(qi)(qi)動(dong)。YZR系列電(dian)動(dong)機起(qi)(qi)動(dong)時,轉子必須串入附加電(dian)阻或電(dian)抗,以限制起(qi)(qi)動(dong)電(dian)流(liu),被限制的起(qi)(qi)動(dong)電(dian)流(liu)的平均值應不超過相應工作方式的額定(ding)電(dian)流(liu)的2倍(bei)。

2)、YZR系(xi)列電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動機(ji)進行(xing)清理(li)和(he)檢查時,打開觀察窗蓋板(ban)和(he)排(pai)塵孔蓋,應把集(ji)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)環室清掃干(gan)凈(jing)。如果集(ji)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)環表面(mian)有塵埃或油污時,可用浸汽油的抹布把塵埃、油污擦凈(jing),待汽油揮發后(hou)才允許(xu)開車。 對于YZR電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji),運(yun)行(xing)中應經(jing)常觀察電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)刷(shua)火花的大小,檢查電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)刷(shua)、集(ji)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)環表面(mian)的磨損情況(kuang)。當(dang)運(yun)行(xing)中電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)刷(shua)發生火花時,應查明原理(li)和(he)并(bing)進行(xing)處理(li)。

 

3)、當(dang)集(ji)電(dian)(dian)(dian)環(huan)(huan)表面(mian)被(bei)(bei)磨(mo)損(sun)或被(bei)(bei)火花灼傷發黑時(shi),輕微(wei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)可用細(xi)(xi)砂(sha)布(bu)小(xiao)心地(di)打磨(mo)光,并將磨(mo)料(liao)清理干凈;嚴重的(de)(de)(de)(de)(如(ru)出現凹槽),則(ze)需(xu)(xu)精車集(ji)電(dian)(dian)(dian)環(huan)(huan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)表面(mian),使粗(cu)糙度達到1.6,徑向(xiang)跳動小(xiao)于0.04㎜。刷握底面(mian)到集(ji)電(dian)(dian)(dian)環(huan)(huan)表面(mian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)距離(li)應保持3㎜左右。 當(dang)電(dian)(dian)(dian)刷磨(mo)損(sun)到不能保持正常位置和壓力時(shi),或電(dian)(dian)(dian)刷磨(mo)損(sun)到原高度的(de)(de)(de)(de)1/3時(shi),應按(an)說明書的(de)(de)(de)(de)要求更(geng)換(huan)(huan)刷塊,更(geng)換(huan)(huan)后的(de)(de)(de)(de)新電(dian)(dian)(dian)刷與集(ji)電(dian)(dian)(dian)環(huan)(huan)接觸面(mian)需(xu)(xu)加工成(cheng)相應的(de)(de)(de)(de)圓(yuan)弧,保證電(dian)(dian)(dian)刷與集(ji)電(dian)(dian)(dian)環(huan)(huan)有良(liang)好的(de)(de)(de)(de)接觸(接觸面(mian)不小(xiao)于總面(mian)積的(de)(de)(de)(de)75%)。加工時(shi)用細(xi)(xi)砂(sha)布(bu)固定在集(ji)電(dian)(dian)(dian)環(huan)(huan)表面(mian),將電(dian)(dian)(dian)刷模擬工況在砂(sha)布(bu)上(shang)磨(mo)削成(cheng)所需(xu)(xu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)圓(yuan)弧。

2.電磁制動(dong)器的(de)使用和維護特點

  YZE、YZRE系列電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)磁制(zhi)動(dong)(dong)(dong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動(dong)(dong)(dong)機(ji)采用失電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(斷電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian))制(zhi)動(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)(qi)。 電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動(dong)(dong)(dong)機(ji)使用前應(ying)對制(zhi)動(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)(qi)進行(xing)檢查。扳動(dong)(dong)(dong)釋放螺栓,看其(qi)是否靈活,并(bing)能否解除制(zhi)動(dong)(dong)(dong),在確認無(wu)誤時(shi)(shi),再(zai)接(jie)通電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源進行(xing)空載運行(xing)。若電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動(dong)(dong)(dong)機(ji)接(jie)入電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源后制(zhi)動(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)(qi)仍未脫開(kai),此(ci)時(shi)(shi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動(dong)(dong)(dong)機(ji)仍將處在制(zhi)動(dong)(dong)(dong)狀(zhuang)態(tai),必(bi)須(xu)立(li)即(ji)切斷電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源,以免(mian)燒壞電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji),檢查電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)磁制(zhi)動(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)(qi)整流(liu)激磁電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路,排除故障后再(zai)投入試運行(xing)。在電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)動(dong)(dong)(dong)機(ji)空載運行(xing)一(yi)段時(shi)(shi)間后,應(ying)停車檢查一(yi)次(ci),觀察各(ge)機(ji)械聯(lian)接(jie)部分有無(wu)松動(dong)(dong)(dong);軸(zhou)承有無(wu)過熱漏(lou)油現(xian)象;制(zhi)動(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)(qi)是否能完全脫開(kai)。如在空載運行(xing)中有任何不(bu)正常現(xian)象和響(xiang)聲(sheng),應(ying)立(li)即(ji)停車檢查,并(bing)作(zuo)必(bi)要的(de)調(diao)整和修復,然后再(zai)進行(xing)負載運行(xing)。 制(zhi)動(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)(qi)的(de)維護和空隙調(diao)整,詳(xiang)見(jian)說明(ming)書。

3.變極多(duo)速電動機的使(shi)用和維護特點(dian)

變極(ji)多速(su)電(dian)(dian)動機采(cai)用改變繞組的(de)(de)接法來改變電(dian)(dian)機的(de)(de)極(ji)數和(he)輸出功(gong)率,使與(yu)機械設(she)備(bei)的(de)(de)負 載特性相匹配,以簡化(hua)其變速(su)系(xi)統,并可節(jie)省大量電(dian)(dian)能。多速(su)電(dian)(dian)動機除(chu)繞組設(she)計外,電(dian)(dian)機 的(de)(de) 主(zhu)要零部件(jian)與(yu)基(ji)本系(xi)列相同。多速(su)電(dian)(dian)動機有雙速(su)、三速(su)和(he)四速(su)三種。極(ji)比有4/8、 4/12、4/6、6/16、4/24、6/24、4/6/24、4/8/32、2/4/20、4/6/8/12等(deng)多種。